The Cane Corso is a descendant of the Canis Pugnax,
dogs used by the Romans in warfare.
Its name derives from cane da corso, an old term for those catch dogs used in rural activities (for cattle and swine; boar hunting, and bear fighting) as distinct from cane da camera which indicates the catch dog kept as a bodyguard. In the recent past, its distribution was limited to some districts of Southern Italy, especially in Basilicata,Campania and Puglia
The Cane Corso is a catch dog used with cattle and swine, and also in wild boar hunts. It is also used by night watchmen, keepers, and, in the past, by carters as a Drover. In the more distant past this breed was common all over Italy as an ample iconography and historiography testify.
The breed was recovered from near extinction through the efforts of enthusiasts in the 1970s by means of cross-breeding appropriate type selected breeds. The Cane Corso of today is a very different looking dog in comparison to its pre-80's forefathers. The drive has somewhat come down, the breed has more bulk and generally due to the shortening of the muzzle and widening of the skull it has lost its scissor bite. It was recognized by the United Kennel Club on July 15, 2008 under the name Cane Corso Italiano, and subsequently by the American Kennel Club in 2010 as Cane Corso. (WIKIPEDIA)
The origins of this breed could be traced back to the Mesopotamical Molossians, as could most Mastiff type dogs of Europe. These ancient Molossors are depicted in a number of sculptures and paintings from the period. These relics depict a large ferocious dog with heavy bone a short blunt muzzle and cropped ears. There are differing theories on how these predecessors to the Cane Corso eventually arrived in Italy; one hypothesis is that they traveled through China, India, finally reaching Europe with the migrations of the Assyrians of Alexander the Great, Phoenicians and Romans. Another school of thought is that ancient tribes (called Molossians) arrived in Greece during the Greek-Persian wars, with Xerxes and the Cirrus Army. The Greeks and Macedonians brought with them large dogs that they utilized for warfare and the hunt. Marco Polo described these dogs as "large as donkeys" The Greeks colonized Italy and brought these ferocious Molossans with them. When the Roman Empire conquered Italy they discovered the Molossiod dog’s virtue as a fighting dog. The Romans developed from these Molossiod dogs what came to be known as Canis Pugnax (the Roman war dog).
It is believed that from this Ancient Molosser the modern day Cane Corso and Neapolitan Mastiff have been developed. The name doesn’t derive from the geographical origin of the breed, some believe that the name comes from the Latin "cohors", which means "guard" or "protector" (examples are: "praetoria cohors"= Praetorian guards and, more recently in the Vatican City, "Cohors Elvetica"=swiss guards) with regard to this theory, its very interesting the hypothesis which identifies the roots of the Corso in the Greek word Kortos, which means "enclosed court", and from which derives the above mentioned cohors.
Consequently, Cane Corso would mean "the dog that watches the court". This hypothesis, if true, would take us back to the "Magna Grecia" (the ancient Greek colonies of southern Italy) and to the attractive oriental origins of the Molossian. Others believe that Corso is derived from an ancient Celtic-Provincial acceptation under which "strong and powerful" was understood. This latter theory is equally plausible, as it is nowadays in some words like the English "coarse" (as opposed to "fine") and in some southern Italian dialects where "Corso" means coarse, strong or bold. What is certain is that from the origination of the Italian language, the Molossian was always called "Corso". There are numerous references to the Cane Corso throughout history in terms of art and literature i.e. Teofilo Folengo in the "Maccheronee" (1522), Konrad von Gesner in the "De Quadrupedibus" (1551), Erasmo di Valvasone in his poem "Hunting" (1591), Mina Palumbo in the "Mammiferi di Sicilia" (1868), Giovanni Verga in the "Malavoglia" (1881), Erasmo di Valvasone’s (1523-1593) poem "La Caccia" (the hunt) from 1591, Giovanni Battista Marino (1569-1625) mentions Cane Corso, in his book "La Sampogna" paintings and sculptures of Corso like Molosser’s appear in the Royal palace of Caserta and the prints of Bartolomeo Pinelli’s (Roma 1781-1835) Pinelli’s depictions in particular stand out as they are grafic in their detail, they show the Pugnaces devouring Christians in the coliseum, locked in combat with each other, and bull-baiting. After the fall of the Roman Empire the Cane Corso proved its versatility by being employed in numerous varying tasks mostly in Southern Italy in provinces like Foggia, Puglia, Bari and Campobasso.
The primary task’s where that of guardian, hunter and farm dog. The Cane Corso’s versatility made it an idea farmhand. He was well suited as a flock guardian, often deployed in the war with the wolves. In these times the Cane Corso often wore collars made of
steel with spikes so when they fought with the wolves they would have an advantage. Collars were called "Vraccale," The Cane Corso often would take off after the wolves and abandon the flock, many of these wolves employed tactics similar the Native American Indians where they would send a decoy to entice the Cane Corso(s) to give chase, thus leaving the flock virtually unguarded. This posed a problem for the Shepard’s. Their solution was too crossbreed the Cane Corso with a native Italian herding dog, the Maremmano-Abruzzese. The Maremmano had a strong attachment to the sheep and was less likely to take off after the wolves. This produced a dog that was capable of fighting of a wolf, but stayed close to the flock, this crossing was called a "Mezzo-Corso."
The Cane Corso was also utilized in the breeding of Hogs and Cattle. A testimonial given by Alfonso Comer at the Civitallo Alfedena in 1990 and published in the book IL Cane Corso by L’Orsa describes the utilization of the breed with hogs "The Cane Corso breeders of S. Paolo are or were the Cilla, the Petardi and the Caldarola. The reason why this breed is found at S. Paolo is because here until not long ago, there were large hog farms. We are talking of breeding in the wild consisting of about 200 animals of a local breed, small, with a black spot on their back, with lean meat and when fattened up they would form a heavy layer of lard. A kind reverse transhumance would be practiced: in the winter the flock would be taken to the forests to forage while from June to august they would be brought to the fallow fields, the fields left uncultivated in preparation for the cereals. The fallow fields are superficially worked with the plow and harrow. This type of soil is rich in nutrients and the hogs, besides vegetable substances, would find rodents, worms and insect larvae. Because of the seasonal heat the pigs would graze at night while during the day they would seek the cool and humid spots, under the scrubs, and they would dig holes and would lie there all day. At dusk they would start to root about. At midnight they would head to the watering place, they would be there for about a half hour and back away till dawn and back to their cool and humid bedding places in the vicinity of S. Marzano, Vena, Orticelli, S. Antonio and Tono where there was plenty of steady water. The habit of night grazing, out of everyone's view, created abuse problems for which each herd had a clearly marked zone separated from the nearby one by a free corridor. The Corso would become indispensable when, at the moment of giving birth, the females would go in the thick vegetation and hide. When the farmer noticed that a sow was missing, he would get on his horse and head for the thick vegetation areas that in his experiences would be the places that the sows would seek under these circumstances. The dog soon enough would locate the female with the litter, but here it became difficult, because the sow is a strong animal and would defend its offspring ferociously. Anyway, thanks to its dexterity and strength, the Corso would resolutely seize the animal and hold it immobilized until the farmer had the time to get the little ones in a sack. Once the man was back on the horse he would give the release command and would start to head back to the masseria. The sow would anxiously follow her offspring back to the farm where they would be reunited. The boars would also become very dangerous, especially when they got past a certain age. They would become especially untouchable at the time of the mounts, because they were excited from the females' scent and because they were transported from one farm to the other. Many farmers used one male. Even here the intelligent, able, strong and courageous Corso was indispensable, ready to jump the minute the boar would rebel. Many farmers were saved from the tusks of these beasts thanks to the leaps of their Corso.
The Cane Corso was also used as a "cattle dog" or "butchers dog".
The beef was raised in wild pastures until the time came for the cattle to be brought to slaughter by the "butteri" (the Italian counterparts to our cowboys). More often than not the herds would have to be driven great distances to be slaughtered. These were essentially "wild" animals and had to be treated with great caution. In order to keep the herd manageable the bulls had to separate, the Cane Corso accomplished this by using its vise like grip on the bulls nose, the pain was so great that it completely incapacitated the bull. This practice became a popular attraction called "bull baiting" The Cane Corso during these journeys had to keep a vigilant watch for predators, as well as cattle thief's. Umberto Leone in his testimonial at the Conference of Civitella Alfedena in 1990 published in the Book IL Cane Corso by L’Orsa describes the dog’s utilization with cows "The Cane Corso is particularly suitable to the needs of cow breeders. It accompanies the animals to the pastures and, on command; it brings back the ones that venture too far. It is very intelligent and it befriends the cows and calves. It's a known fact that whenever you have three or four dogs loose they tend to gang up and attacks the livestock, but with the Corso this danger is non-existent. Even if a cow gives birth at night, the smell of the blood, the absence of the owner or the darkness do not tempt him and he does not even try to eat the afterbirth. If I place a bucket full of milk on the ground, he'll Approach it with desire but I'll look up at me and would not dare touch it Without my invitation.
They are this way without any training. I have owned dogs of different breeds and have been able to compare them. For a period I owned a German shepherd dog (GSD); he was so arrogant it bothered me. My Corsos, that were in the house, were calm while this new arrival every day would take either a pale of milk, an egg, run after my chickens or the cats. For the Corso this is unthinkable. Years ago, we bred sheep and my son had obtained a couple of GSD. After a short time I had to get rid of them out of desperation. I could not leave them untied for any reason: they would attack the sheep, the chickens, the cows...it was like the wolves had arrived from the Mountains! In short, the only breed for us is the Cane Corso.
The Cane Corso also has a history as a hunter of large game such as badger, bear and wild boar. In the same testimonial Alfonso Comer describes the hunt of the Badger "The badger spends the day sleeping in deep underground tunnels that are practically inaccessible. But at sundown, it exits its den, leaves the forest and heads for the fields to eat. Badger meat is willingly eaten, noted are the curative capacity of its fat for any form of arthritis; the skin is sold to make brushes and horse harness. The hunt starts pretty late, around 10:00 pm, in order to give the badger enough time to distance itself from its den. It's useful if there is some light form the moon in order to see where you are going. You would need a couple of scent hounds to find the tracks and follow it, and naturally a Corso to take the animal. The farmers were not the only ones to practice this kind of hunt but also other passionate that would borrow the dogs for the occasion. Upon leaving the village we would begin to follow a predetermined route that would basically be a large circle and at the end of the night would bring us back to the starting point. The direction
of the course was established based on the prevailing winds, because the badger has a great sense of smell. On very calm nights the chances of getting anything are slim. We would then walk the outer limits of the forest and hopefully we would encounter the tracks that the animals used to get to the vineyards or the cornfields. The segugi run silently and ahead, often out of view, while the Corsos remain close to the men. There is a need to steer wide of the masseria or you would have to face the fury of the guard dogs. Here, the Corso takes off silently toward a point in the darkness that only he knows: he heard the whining coming from the scent hounds, the segugi, and that to him is a clear message. The men do nothing; they hurry to the point where they observed the Corso disappear and by the time they get there all is finished. The badger is a robust and combative animal and has a strong defense but the expert Corso knows where to grab Him and dispatch him in an instant."
Often in the hunt of wild boar the Corso's were let loose to pounce on the boar, catching it by the ears and snout dragging it down. This allowed the hunter to get close enough to finish the animal off with a well-placed stab. This bloody finale was the subject of many paintings and drawings of the time.
The inhabitant’s of southern Italy also utilized the Cane Corso as a combat dog, not in the sense that others do for betting or just blood sport. Many of the earlier passionates (and some today) believed that only in combat could the true character of the dog be tested. In the same testimonial old time breeder Umberto Leone describes this practice "at one time fights were allowed between Corso’s and I had a male that was invincible. They came from Bari, Campobasso and from all over Foggia, but there were none that could beat him. He had a trigger like a feline; the second he saw his adversary he would take off like lightning and grab him between the throat and ear. As long as they could breath he would not release" Renaissance and Feudal lords used this breed not only for hunting and guarding fortifications but also as weapon of war. The dogs where outfitted with protection for there chest and backs with a coat of hard leather. Still other’s where designated to carry containers on their backs filled with flammable substances and lit. These Corso’s where called "piriferi" (fire carriers) and where sent against the opposition’s cavalry, scaring the horses and injuring them in the process. A recent article written on the Destruction of the Castle of Triburco details the utilization of Cane Corso’s in battle "the first to run in order to avenge that terrible infamy inflicted to the abbot were the inhabitants of Montopoli, which were known by tradition, to be brave men of arms, all provided with Cane Corso’s for their own defense and the defense of the land, so that they were called Corsari" the article further goes on to say "It was a bloody fight and lasted almost the whole day. Those big dogs caused a terrible massacre during the attack, because the long lack of food made them more aggressive, the rebels had to run away and abandon the castle". This article is based on text from a document dated 1862 entitled "Upon the Salso-Marziale water in Farfa Di Sabina, memories of DR. Lorenzo Costantini.
IL Cane Corso, Origini e prospettive del molosso italico S. Gandolfi & F. Casolin
Brevi Annotazioni Sul Cane Corso, Nel Tempo, Nelle Diverse Condizioni Geografiche, Ambientali E Sociali, Flavio Bruno.
IL Cane Corso, Renzo Carosio
IL Cane Corso, Flavio Bruno
Fattoria Ad Indirizzo Cerealico-Zootecnico, Flavio Bruno
IL Cane Corso, Edizioni L’Orsa
IL Cane Corso, Giuseppe Chiecchi & Giorgio Gualtieri 1st Edition
IL Cane Corso, Giuseppe Chiecchi & Giorgio Gualtieri 2nd Edition
Testimoniaze Visive E Grafiche Di Un Amico Ritrovato: "IL Corso" Flavio Bruno & Giovanni Tumminelli
Quattro Zampe Magazine, 12/28/95
Canidapresa Magazine, June 2000
Canidapresa Magazine, August 2000
Canidapresa Magazine, September 1997
Canidapresa Magazine, December 1998
Canidapresa Magazine, October 1999
Cani Una Rivista Di Razza Magazine, January 2000
Cani Le Razze, Eraldo Tonelli
Lezioni Di Cinognostica, L. Barbieri
Le Razze Italiane, ENCI
A Celebration of Rare Breeds, Cathy Flamholtz Volume 2
The Rare Breed Handbook, Dee Gannon 2nd Edition
Conversations with Flavio Bruno
Conversations with Renzo Carosio
Conversations with Umberto Leone
International Cane Corso Federation Bulletin Board (www.canecorso.org)
International Cane Corso Federation History page (www.canecorso.org)
International Cane Corso Federation Information Pack
International Cane Corso Federation Judges Manual
International Cane Corso Federation Quarterly Newsletter (fall 1996)
Association of Italian Cane Corso Bulletin Board (www.canecorsoitaliano.com)
Private correspondence letters from Renzo Carosio
^ Cane Corso Standard of FCI
^ a b c Cane Corso Standard of Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana (ENCI)
^ "Cane Corso". 5 Star Dog, Inc.. http://www.5stardog.com/dog-breeds-cane-corso.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
^ Back from the Brink (translated), The FOCC
^ Cane Corso Italiano at the United Kennel Club
^ Cane Corso at the AKC
^ Sydney, Grace. "'30 Rock' Star Tracy Morgan with His Dogs". DogTipper.com, 7 August 2009.
^ Withers, Tom. "Cavaliers Wary of Rest Turning to Rust", Associated Press, NBA.com, 2 May 2007.